To answer the questions(s) you need to first define “intelligence”. The definition I think is most relevant is that “intelligence” is a set of rules that define the processing of inputs.
Biological systems derive their intelligence from their DNA and the systems that DNA produces. In this framework, all biological systems are “intelligent”, even a blade of grass. This intelligence is generally not “random”, except for some of the processes that create mutations in genetic sequencing/reproduction (of which I am skeptical - aside, it wouldn’t surprise me if there’s some sort of mnemonic system in DNA that determines genetic distributions during reproduction).
Cosmological entities like solar systems are outcomes of instruction sets, namely of the fundamental forces of physics (strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational). These are the “instruction sets” or “intelligence” that produce these systems. These forces are also not “random” - they can be precisely studied and measured.
In this framework, anything non-static (which is everything, except fundamental physical law) is an outcome of an instruction set. What is seemingly “random” to a human mind, is most likely due to there being so many inputs, that a human mind cannot fully track or remember the states of the system over time.
The real question that Intelligent Design proponents most of the time want to ask is, what was the “first” instruction set, how was it created (if at all) and what its properties are.
Like other religious mythologies, it becomes “personified” into a human worldview - like the OP, describing intelligence in terms of “understanding” how objects of the world operate. A conscious being is not required for intelligence to exist. A conscious being is only required for awareness of said “intelligence”.
Moreover, if every intelligent object needs a creator, then the creator of those objects needs a creator. This recursive loop breaks the premise. If one admits there are exceptions for God needing a creator, then one admits intelligence does not require intelligence to be created, or that intelligence can exist in itself with no creation required (unless God is not intelligent and used a non-intelligent force to create intelligence)
Given the above, it’s more likely that a duality exists in the fundamental nature of reality. Just like light and dark, there’s “conscious” intelligence (understanding) and non-conscious intelligence (physical law). Both of these systems of intelligence have a fundamental base state that is uncreated. Maybe they eternally “dance” with eachother to create our realities.
In the end, there’s really no point trying to understand where it all “came from” - after all we are limited by our own human intelligence.
There’s certainly no point in just labeling it as “God” and acting like we’ve solved something. It’s just the limit of human intelligence. Biological systems in our brain are built to operate with inputs and outputs, where every output requires an input. We won’t escape it, and any attempt to declare God, is simply an output of us reaching our own limit of intelligence, and our brain trying to fill the input gap.
“GOD” is the brain’s conscious limit of intelligence.